Road Rage and AI Self-Driving Cars


By Lance Eliot, the AI Trends Insider

Have you ever experienced road rage?

Most of us have at one time or another have experienced a road rage act imposed upon us or perhaps even internally felt our own burning sensation of road rage (thankfully, most drivers do not seem to overtly act out on it). Here in Los Angeles, we hold the distinction of originally coining the phrase “road rage” when a local reporter opted to describe a series of untoward driving and attack events that had occurred on our freeways by saying it amounted to an eruption of “road rage.”

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), road rage involves a driver that “commits moving traffic offenses so as to endanger other persons or property; an assault with a motor vehicle or other dangerous weapon by the operator or passenger of one motor vehicle on the operator or passengers of another motor vehicle.”  Some dictionary definitions say that it is an uncontrollable urge or impulse, but I don’t like the use of the word “uncontrollable” being used because it suggests that the perpetrators are somehow being forced to perform such acts by an invisible hand, when in fact they could prevent their acts by exerting better self-control.

A research study done in 2016 reported that based on a survey of United States drivers, about 80% indicated they had experienced either road rage, significant anger, or overt aggression, at least once in the last year while driving on the roadways. Nearly half said they had experienced purposeful tailgating, and slightly less than half indicated they had either yelled at another driver or honked their horn in annoyance or anger at another driver. I realize it is tempting to react to others that seemingly have driven badly, but doing so can have some really adverse consequences.

Indeed, about 4% of the drivers responding to the survey said that they had actually gotten out of their car to confront another driver, which though this might seem like a small percentage, it translates into potentially 7.6 million drivers that annually get out of their car to go after another driver. There were about 600 gun-involved road rage occurrences in that same year and the number of gun related incidents continues to rise annually.  When you add guns into the equation, the deadliness of road rage acts can easily devolve into shootings that lead to severe injuries and even death.

I’ve seen with my own eyes several road rage incidents that luckily for me, did not directly involve me. You can bet too that I’ve had my share of bad drivers that have irked me, frustrated me, endangered me, and otherwise could have led to my responding to them. I’ve pretty much refrained from doing so.

There are some that say that you should respond to those lousy drivers so that they will become more aware about what they’ve done wrong, presumably trying to alert them and make their roadway guffaw moment into a helpful driving lesson for them. In my experience, this notion that you are somehow going to improve the other driver’s driving habits by honking or yelling at them is a wild stretch of the imagination. Another justifying reason sometimes given to react is that by doing so you are warning other drivers, since presumably the nearby drivers can see that you are giving the finger to the other driver or otherwise drawing attention to them. Once again, I doubt that this attempt to possibly put a spotlight on those other drivers is really being done to try and benefit fellow drivers.

Maybe I’m an advocate of passivism in these matters, which I realize some of you might disagree with, but I tend to believe that you are better off to let go of the moment of potential reactive anger, which otherwise could lead to a lifetime of angst, suffering, and regret.

One day, I was driving along in the as-usual sluggish Southern California freeway traffic when I noticed up ahead that two cars were pulled over into the emergency lane. The drivers were outside of their cars and standing between the two now parked automobiles. I could see that they were yelling and pointing feverishly at each other. The situation looked dire. Given the high number of TV shows that are filmed here on our freeways, I actually looked around to see if maybe there was a film crew and these were paid actors. Sadly, it was real life.

Just as I slowly drove past, one took a swing at the other one. I watched in shock and horror in my rear view mirror as they started to duke it out, right there on the freeway, in bold and bright daylight, on what otherwise should have been a sunny and cheerful Monday. A police car was making its way up to the scene and I later read in the news about how the two men beat each other up and the officer had to stop them from likely killing each other.

Road Rage Can Be a Criminal Offense

This case was an obvious one involving criminal behavior. Many people don’t realize that road rage can in fact readily be a criminal offense, even if you don’t get out of your cars to perform a street performance boxing match. Intentional assault is for most states a criminal act, and if you use your car to try and assault someone, such as trying to ram them or driving them off-the-road, you can be subject to prosecution and potential jail time. Road rage incidents can result in jail or prison incarceration, it can include a driver’s license suspension, it can include compulsory anger management classes, and can involve civil lawsuits and financial penalties.

The garden variety type of road rage plays out every day and by-and-large goes unpunished and generally unreported. It can include the average driver that is relatively unknown to the rest of the world and so it is just part and parcel of the daily drive. Or, it can involve big time celebrities. For example, the famous comedian and actor Chevy Chase was recently reported as being involved in a road rage incident in New York. According to the news, the comedian alleged that the other driver cut him off, and so he opted to chase up to catch him, they then both got out of their cars, there was a scuffle, and now there are accusations about who swung at whom first.

We tend to be surprised when we hear that a well-to-do person got involved in road rage. The thinking is that someone that has wealth, fame, prestige, and otherwise societal success, would not allow themselves to be drawn into road rage. Why mess with it? Just shrug it off and move on. I suppose it shows that as humans, we are all susceptible to wanting to defend ourselves. No matter what else we might already have, we are still offended by perceived offenses and have a natural tendency to react.

Another theory is that when we are in our cars, we begin to lose touch with reality. Inside the cocoon of the car, we perceive a certainly amount of safety and autonomy. We are detached from the outside world and it is as though we are actually in a simulator. What is occurring outside the windshield might as well be on a movie screen. We also become emboldened in our cars. We are more apt to yell or give the finger toward someone, in contrast to if you were standing on the street and facing the other person directly. People that might otherwise be shy or reserved will have a tremendous feeling of empowerment, since they perceive they are protected by a ton of metal and steel.

We also at times seem to get into our minds the aspects of what is right and wrong in the world, and as a driver we are watching for those that digress from what we believe to be proper etiquette in driving. If another driver suddenly cuts into your lane and fails to properly signal, for you, that’s an offense. For someone else, even if the person signaled, and even if the person waited to get into the lane, the driver being “imposed upon” might perceive that no one should be cutting in front of them. The driving etiquette is highly variable by person and so what might seem like an innocent move to some is a punishable-by-death-sentence offense by another.

I knew one driver that told me that for the empty roadway space in front of his car and up to the next car ahead, he considered that his “personal space” and that any driver that wanted to invade it would need to be worthy. Worthiness to him included the type of car that wanted to breech into the space, how the other car signaled, and other factors. Seems pretty wacky. Well, with over 200 million cars in the United States, and when you consider that just about any adult can pretty much get a driver’s license, the mindset of drivers is going to be all over the map. Not all drivers necessarily have in their minds the same rational thoughts as the rest of us.

Besides the overall mindset of drivers, we also need to consider the moment to moment mental mindset of drivers. A very otherwise rational driver might have just gotten fired at work that afternoon, or maybe they had a terrible argument with a loved one. They get into their car, and they are already an internally boiling brew of anger. All it takes is a simple act by another driver, maybe veering a bit close to their car, and it is like the proverbial match that lights a fire. The person that has all this other pent-up anger now lets it spill forth, partially emboldened by being in their car cocoon. This kind of explains why we sometimes see otherwise seemingly caring people that just go nuts with road rage.

Getting caught up in the moment is a key factor involved often in road rage. The other day, I was standing in an elevator, minding my own business, and another person got into the elevator and opted to stand right next to me. This was a big enough elevator that the person could easily have been several feet from me. But, no, the person had to stand within inches of me. My first thought was that the person was rude and I even wondered whether they had some other ulterior motive in mind. Why invade my private space? I decided to go ahead and move to the other side of the elevator, wanting to see whether the other person would say anything or do anything. They did not. In this case, probably it was just that the person was unaware of their transgression. Or, at least, in my view, their perceived transgression.

The same can happen when we are driving our cars. Another driver makes a move, it might be something that seems like a transgression, but to them maybe it is not. They might be blissfully unaware of their actions. It could be that the driver is just someone that doesn’t pay attention to others on the roadways. Or, maybe it’s the driver that just got fired and so they are driving more aggressively than normal, but don’t realize they are doing so. All in all, the point is that the in-the-moment factor is often what makes or breaks a road rage incident. It would seem rarer that there are those that are road rage “professionals” that seek out acts of committing road rage. It does happen, for sure, but the preponderance of road rage is more akin to moments of perceived transgressions.

Police will generally tell you that chasing after another car when you believe that you’ve been acted upon by a road rage perpetrator is not a good idea and indeed you should not take such action (get the license plate number and call 911 instead). By chasing after another car, you are endangering all other cars and drivers, along with pedestrians, and so you are making a bad situation even worse. The millions of daily road rage incidents are pretty much defused because there is no cascading reaction involved. It’s when the road rage incident is escalated and becomes a series of larger and larger steps that it gets out-of-hand. The two drivers that I mentioned had stopped on the freeway in the emergency lane had indeed escalated whatever was occurring. They were also endangering the other drivers by putting on the spectacle. Other drivers could have inadvertently rammed into each other by the distraction, and likewise being in the emergency lane meant that it could not be used easily for a true emergency, etc. These road rage engulfed drivers didn’t likely think about that aspect, and were only thinking about themselves.

There are some that say you should show remorse to another driver that has committed some kind of initiating road rage act. If someone else cuts you off while you are driving, you are to show them love instead of hate. Be the bigger person. I suppose this is quite admirable, but I think it is not only hard to bring yourself to take this stance, but it can also be perceived by the road rage instigator as an act of offense. The instigator might further escalate the road rage due to your act of love. The same is somewhat true if you are the instigator. If another car honks at you, and you control yourself and opt to say thanks instead of getting angry, it can actually set the other person into a rage. For me, the taking of almost any reactive action is bound to more likely escalate the matter, rather than diffuse it (of course, each particular instance and circumstances dictate this).

A simple model of the road rage behavior consists of an instigator that performs some act, and a reactor that responds to the act.

We’ve got this:  Instigator -> Reactor

If all goes generally well, the matter ends with the reactor and there’s no escalation involved, and hopefully the instigating act did not cause any direct harm to begin with, other than maybe a close call.

Due to the potential for escalation, it can become this:  Instigator -> Reactor -> Instigator

Here, the instigator led to the reactor, which led to the reactor reacting, which now has promoted the instigator to take further action. Hopefully, things come to a stop and this doesn’t get more pronounced.

But, it can go further:  Instigator -> Reactor -> Instigator -> Reactor …. {repeat}

What can happen is that the process escalates, with repeated acts upon the instigator and the reactor, often getting larger and larger. This can continue until unfortunately they end-up injuring or maybe even killing each other. The escalation or chain reaction can occur over many minutes or it can occur quickly as in just a matter of seconds.

All it takes is for a car going 80 miles per hour to affront another driver, which that driver then tries to ram the first driver, and they both hit each other and cause a car wreck. It can play out with the blink of an eye. Other situations like the two drivers that got into the emergency lane and fought each other by-hand, had probably taken maybe ten to fifteen minutes to first get entangled and then pull over and get out of their cars.

Road Rage and Personality Types

Some research suggests that the action and reactions are also tied to the personality types of the persons involved. A type A aggressive personality will possibly take a different action than say a type B moderate personality. We can assign the personality types to the instigator and the reactor, and see how that plays out.


     Instigator: Type A aggressive personality

     Reactor: Type B moderate personality

Fast end:  Instigator of Type A -> Reactor of Type B

Depending upon the situation, the road rage potentially stops before it gets extended. The Type B personality shrugs off the incident and does not escalate.

Suppose instead it is this:  Instigator Type A -> Reactor Type A.

It is believed that this will be an increased odds of an escalation, in that the reactor being a type A will be more likely to react and then this will lead to the instigator type A further responding, and so on.

We then have these four combinations:

    Fast end: Instigator Type A -> Reactor Type B

    Extensive escalation: Instigator Type A -> Reactor Type A

    Mild escalation: Instigator Type B -> Reactor Type A

    Quickest end: Type B -> Reactor Type B

One issue though about these personality types studies involves the situation or circumstance involved. Even a type B personality might escalate if it just so happened that morning that they had gotten fired from their job or otherwise are in a highly emotional state. A type A might be mellow on a particular day and circumstance. Also, the nature of the instigating act can be a significant determiner. The personality types offer an overall indication of what might happen, but it is contextual based as to how things will actually unfold.

When considering the outcome of a road rage, there is a range of outcomes that can occur, including:

  1. No harm, no foul (relatively instantaneous and then forgotten)
  2. Psychological harm (momentary versus long lasting)
  3. Physical harm (car-to-car, via gun, via other attack)
  4. Other

One interesting aspect is that a mild road rage act can plant the seed for a future more overt road rage act. Let’s suppose a car cuts me off. I am irked and at the moment and do nothing. But, this boils up in me. Twenty minutes later, a completely different car cuts me off. That’s it, I scream and exclaim to the world that I’ve had it with these instigators. So, I vent and proceed to go after this particular driver. It could be that maybe this driver made a simple mistake and was unknowingly cutting me off, but at this point I have in my mind that I have been offended enough by these acts that I finally decide to take action. I allow the accumulation of all those other offensive drivers to now become my act of revenge.

In that sense, the road rage acts are like a virus. Each instance can infect each other driver. Some drivers will be able to just shrug it off and it won’t have any lasting effect. Others will add it to the pile of such offenses. Eventually, a tipping point is reached. The last straw falls on the camel’s back. And therefore someone that otherwise would not have likely been a road rage active participant, now decides to rid the earth of these road rage idiots.  If this happens with the wrong kind of instigator, you get yourself the road rage exponential impact.

Speaking of instigators, we need to consider what motivates them. It could be that an instigator has performed an act completely by innocence. They didn’t realize that what they did would be offensive to another driver. Or, they didn’t see that the other driver was there. Etc. Or, it could be that the instigator knew that did something untoward, but they view it as the normal course of driving. Driving is a shark’s game, they believe, and we all need to grab for whatever territory we can. They might have intentionally started the road rage because they like to be a troublemaker and want to see what will happen. There are a seemingly endless number of intentions.

Reactors have similar kinds of mindsets. There are some reactors that will make a mountain out of a mole hill, in that if another car even dares to seemingly do the tiniest offensive act, they will react. Others have a high tolerance and either don’t notice offensive acts, or figure offensive acts are just part of the driving game, and so on.

It can also be confusing at times as to who is an instigator versus a reactor, and also how someone can get tossed into this dangerous roadway game. I’ve seen the case of a misidentified instigator as proded by a misguided reactor — allow me to explain.

There was a black sedan ahead of me that cut-off a sports car, the black sedan zoomed ahead into a bunch of gnarly traffic, the  sports car that was cut-off tried to catch-up, and then mistakenly seemed to think that a different black sedan that had nothing to do with any of this was the original instigator. I saw the sports car get right behind the misidentified black sedan, and then the sports car turned its headlights on-and-off and put on its brights, presumably trying to show displeasure to what he thought was the instigator. Chock this up to a misguided reactor going after a misidentified instigator.

Of course, as you might guess, this sadly drew the misidentified black sedan into the situation and now it wanted to react to the sports car. And so the ball gets rolling, sickeningly. Proof that two wrongs don’t make a right.

There’s also the instigator that seems out for blood, for no apparent reason, for anyone that might be on the roadway. Usually, a road rage of one instigator will irk one reactor, and they then start a chain reaction that includes themselves and possibly spills over to other drivers. But, I’ve also seen a driver that cuts off car-after-car, weaving in and out of traffic, and leaves in their wake a platoon of reactors. Is the instigator drunk and just driving erratically? Or, is the driver a nut that is determined to wreak havoc upon the world? Sometimes it’s one, sometimes it’s the other.

You’ve got your drunk drivers, your careless drivers, your partying drivers, your pushy drivers, your rushed drivers, your tailgating drivers, your speeding drivers, your cut-off drivers, your honking drivers, your turn-signal irritating drivers, and on and on. There are some drivers that drive an expensive car and so they think they should have the right way of the road. There are some drivers that resent drivers that have an expensive car and so they want to show them that the rest of us with inexpensive cars won’t be pushed around.

Pretty much, when you are driving, you have the entire mixture of society and culture that will dictate how people will drive. You cannot somehow extract out of the equation the human elements of how they perceive the world, what their beliefs are, how they handle their emotions, what their life status is, and the rest. It’s all immersed into the driving act and being on the roadways.

What does this have to do with AI self-driving cars?

At the Cybernetic Self-Driving Car Institute, we are developing AI self-driving cars that can deal with road rage.

Now, there are some pundits of AI self-driving cars that will tell you that there will never be any road rage once we have self-driving cars. In their utopian world, the AI of the self-driving cars will determine how all cars on the roadways act and react, and so the human elements of road rage are expunged from the equation.  Road rage solved. It will never ever occur again.


Let’s consider the first aspect which is an assumption that all cars will magically overnight be AI self-driving cars. Instead, the adoption of AI self-driving cars is going to happen over a lengthy time and that we will for many, many years have a mixture of both conventional human-driven cars and AI self-driving cars. This means that for decades we will have humans driving and automation driving.

There will be human drivers that will still be experiencing road rage at other human drivers. This stays the same as with our world today. Some say it might get even worse, since the road rage against AI self-driving cars won’t exist as much, and so the volume of road rage will be enacted upon an increasingly smaller set of human driven cars. The per capita road rage might increase, some predict.

There will also though be human drivers that will experience road rage against AI self-driving cars. Make no mistake about that.

Human drivers are going to get upset at AI self-driving cars. You might say that’s stupid of those humans to so react, but I assure they will get upset at self-driving cars. Whether the self-driving car intended to cut someone off or otherwise did something amiss in the mind of the human driver, it really won’t matter that the AI presumably was innocent, the human is going to get upset anyway at the perceived affront.

The human driver will then potentially try to ram the self-driving car, or force it off the road, or shoot at the human passengers inside, etc. In essence, all of the same reactions that the human driver might have toward another human driver can readily play out by the human driver toward an AI self-driving car.

Since that’s the case, what do we want our AI self-driving cars to do?

From an ethics perspective, you might say that the AI should not react to the instigator, but that’s a somewhat shortsighted view. If another car is trying to ram an AI self-driving car, are you suggesting that the AI self-driving car should let this happen? I think not. The AI self-driving car would likely need to take evasive action, which I would think we all would agree is prudent. If there are human occupants inside the AI self-driving car, you can pretty much bet that they certainly want the AI to try and protect them.

OK, so now I assume you are on-board with the idea that the AI self-driving car is going to get involved in road rages, presumably as a reactor rather than as an instigator.

Well, I’d like to gently point out that the role of the instigator can be in the mind of the beholder.

If an AI self-driving car comes up to a four-way stop, and it moves ahead before a human driven car that also came to the stop, and even if the self-driving car had the right-of-way, the human driver might believe that the AI instigated a road rage because it slighted them. Or, if that’s not enough for you, suppose a self-driving car is on the freeway and needs to take an emergency action because there is debris on the roadway, so it rapidly switches lanes and slightly cuts off another driver. Maybe that other driver, a human, did not see the debris and so has no idea why the AI cut them off. Or, maybe the other driver saw the debris but felt that the AI should have taken the lane to the left instead of the lane to the right that they are in.  And so on. The human might react to the “instigator” act of the AI self-driving car.

Innocent AI Self-Driving Car Can Still Get Involved in Road Rage

There’s another angle here too. Suppose an AI self-driving car is not doing anything untoward at all. It pulls up to an intersection. A human driven car also pulls up to the intersection and is sitting right next to the AI self-driving car. The human occupants in the self-driving car opt to roll down the windows. They yell and taunt the humans in the other car. Maybe they even point a gun at the other car. The human driven car now perceives this as an instigation and so the human driver tries to ram the self-driving car.

Voila, we now have another example of an AI self-driving car being involved in a road rage incident. You might complain and say that it’s not fair to blame the AI self-driving car in this last case, since it is the unruly humans inside the AI self-driving car that led to the altercation. Yes, that’s true, but notice that the point is that it involves an AI self-driving car. Thus, the utopian view that says there won’t be any more road rages is a mistaken view, even if we were to have all self-driving cars.

Now, if we did magically have only AI self-driving cars on the roadways, at least (in theory), we could limit the road rage acts to being done without the intended effort by the self-driving car itself. For example, we have two AI self-driving cars come up to an intersection. They are side-by-side. Both cars have human occupants. The human occupants roll down their windows and shout at each other, and then start shooting guns at each other. The AI itself presumably won’t try to ram the other car, and nor will the AI of the other car try to ram the first car.

This though raises another thorny topic. To what degree will we allow the human occupants to get the AI to take certain kinds of driving actions? Suppose I’m in an AI self-driving car, and the AI self-driving car next to me has human occupants that point a gun at me. I want my AI self-driving car to speed away. I don’t want to sit there like a sitting duck. I am assuming most of you would agree with me that the AI should be able to react or act upon instructions if the human occupants have some kind of emergency.

How far though can this AI reaction go? If I ask my self-driving car to speed ahead, and suppose it’s a red light, should the AI allow my self-driving car to violate the law and go through the red light? And if so, how might it endanger other cars and other human occupants? Here’s a real mind bender – suppose I ask my self-driving car to ram the other car, in order to presumably stop it from harming me, a human occupant in the AI self-driving car? This might a prudent solution to the problem at hand, and you can’t completely rule out that this would never ever be permitted.

For humans, when they are driving, we often see humans that are like a Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, in that they suddenly snap and become ferocious drivers or react emotionally to what is happening on the roadways. A professional bodyguard driver knows that sometimes ramming another car might be the proper and prudent means to stop a bad situation from getting worse or forcing it off the road. This a perfectly rational act and not necessarily one that was motivated by emotion. Will we expect our AI self-driving cars to do the same?

Those that have a utopian view believe that an AI self-driving car should never do anything that would harm or impinge on other cars. This is a naïve view of the world. Those other cars, even when driven by AI, might have humans in them that have dastardly acts in mind and want to carry them out. Unless we are going to make AI self-driving cars into vaults, such that when humans get into them there is nothing else they can do, other than be essentially imprisoned within them, we need to assume that the human element is still going to come to play on our roadways.

We need to have highly sophisticated AI that can be aware of how to take evasive actions and be able to respond to road rage. The AI needs to be able to interact with the human occupants of the self-driving car, and be able to ascertain whether any commands given by the humans should be carried out or not.

If we are going to ask that we have self-driving cars, we need to also realize the importance of the driving task and that it involves more than simply driving down a highway. Since we are saying that we want self-driving cars that can drive like humans, it means that the AI also needs to be able to know how to properly take defensive actions, and even actions considered of a more proactive nature, as dependent upon the circumstances.

This brings up another facet of the AI of self-driving cars. A chunk of the AI savviness is based on artificial neural networks which are looking for patterns in driving behaviors. When training the neural network, we use lots of driving situations and feed those into the neural network to do pattern matching. Suppose that the dataset has instances of road rage – what will the neural network “learn” from those instances? If there are too few, it could be that the system lands on a pattern of response that we would not want undertaken. Without some form of guidance or supervision to that learning, we could have the AI reacting in an oddball manner, perhaps reacting incorrectly to a true road rage, or acting incorrectly to a situation that is not actually a road rage.

The AI needs to be on the lookout for potential road rage circumstances and be using the sensory data to try and do an early detection of such a situation. During the sensor fusion and updates to the internal virtual model of the surrounding driving world, the AI should be finding telltale clues. If a road rage appears imminent, we would want the AI to have the self-driving car take a defensive posture, hopefully avoiding the road rage. This could be road rage that is aimed at the self-driving car, or it could be road rage aimed at other nearby cars and for which the self-driving car wants to avoid getting entangled into it.

With the gradual advent of V2V, vehicle-to-vehicle communications, there is also the potential for one AI of a self-driving car to alert other nearby AI’s of other self-driving cars about a possible road rage emerging. This then would provide a helpful heads-up for those other self-driving cars. In a more involved fashion, the self-driving cars could even act together to try and defuse the road rage, thus, rather than each individual self-driving car backing away, perhaps they strategically work as a momentary virtual team of self-driving cars to minimize the road rage act.

One advantage of self-driving cars will be that they will nearly all be outfitted with video cameras and other sensory devices that can record what is happening on the roadways. This is an advantage due to the aspect that often when a road rage occurs today, it becomes a he-said she-said situation. One driver claims that another driver cut them off. The other driver refutes the allegation. It’s hard to know what really did happen. Sometimes other drivers will come forward to say what they saw. But, those other drivers might be unreliable or have a grudge or otherwise might even innocently misreport what occurred. With self-driving cars, the odds are that we’ll have not only the recorded evidence that’s in the involved self-driving cars, but we could potentially collect similar recorded evidence from other nearby self-driving cars that were witnesses to the incident.

For some of us, this seems like a great thing, for others it might be seen as a bit scary and somewhat Big Brother like.

In any case, as I’ve tried to indicate, road rage is not going away. Unless society as a whole has a brainwashing and we can get people to be always and entirely be civil toward one another, we’re going to continue to have road rage. It will happen while there is a mixture of both human driven cars and AI self-driving cars. And, as I’ve mentioned, it will even continue when we reach the utopian world of all self-driving cars.

For many of the auto makers and tech firms that are developing AI self-driving cars, they are focusing right now on just getting the AI to be able to drive the car. After we get the AI self-driving car version 1.0 nailed down, we’ll need to be moving toward version 2.0. That’s where the road rage handling capabilities will be considered not just as an add-on, but an essential component of a true AI self-driving car.

This content is originally posted on AI Trends.